Endourology is a specialized field of urology that involves the use of small, minimally invasive instruments to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the urinary tract. This field encompasses a wide range of procedures, including the use of endoscopes to visualize and treat the bladder, ureters, and kidneys. Some common procedures performed in endourology include: Ureteroscopy: A procedure that uses a thin, flexible endoscope to visualize the inside of the ureter and kidney, allowing for the removal of stones, biopsies, and treatment of tumors or strictures. Cystoscopy: A procedure that uses a narrow, flexible endoscope to visualize the inside of the bladder, allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder tumors, stones, and other abnormalities. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A procedure that involves making a small incision in the back and using a specialized instrument to remove large kidney stones. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): A procedure that involves using an endoscope to remove excess prostate tissue in men with enlarged prostate glands. Endourology procedures are minimally invasive, which means they typically require smaller incisions, have lower complication rates, and result in quicker recovery times than traditional surgery. Endourology has revolutionized the treatment of many urological conditions, providing patients with safe, effective alternatives to traditional surgical methods.

Laser Treatment Of Stones

Laser treatment of stones is a medical procedure that uses a laser to break down or remove stones in the body. This is typically done for kidney stones, bladder stones, and other urinary tract stones, but can also be used for stones in the salivary glands, bile ducts, or pancreas. During the procedure, a small tube called a ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter or kidney. A laser fiber is then passed through the ureteroscope and used to break up the stone into smaller pieces. The laser can also be used to vaporize small stones, making them easier to pass out of the body through urine.

Miniaturized Pcnl

Miniaturized PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to remove kidney stones. The procedure involves creating a small incision in the back and inserting a miniature endoscope and other specialized instruments to remove the stone.

Compared to traditional PCNL, miniaturized PCNL uses smaller instruments, typically 11-20 French in diameter, which allows for a smaller incision and potentially reduces the risk of complications such as bleeding and scarring. The smaller instruments are also more maneuverable, allowing for greater precision during the procedure.


RIRS stands for Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to treat kidney stones. During RIRS, a thin, flexible ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder, then advanced through the ureter and into the kidney to visualize the stone.

The surgeon then uses a laser or other tool to break up the stone into small fragments, which can then be extracted using a small basket or suction device. Because RIRS is performed entirely through the urinary tract, it does not require any incisions and typically has a shorter recovery time compared to traditional open surgery.